Sunday, 8 August 2010

idiomatic expression/ idioms/ proverbs

idiomatic expression??idioms??proverbs??

At the top of your lungs
If you shout at the top of your lungs, you shout as loudly as you possibly can.
At the top of your voice
If you talk, shout or sing at the top of your voice, you do it as loudly as you can.
At your wit's end
If you're at your wit's end, you really don't know what you should do about something, no matter how hard you think about it.

Barrel of laughs
If someone's a barrel of laughs, they are always joking and you find them funny.

Basket case
If something is a basket case, it is so bad that it cannot be helped.

Bat an eyelid
If someone doesn't bat an eyelid, they don't react or show any emotion when surprised, shocked, etc.

Bated breath
If someone says they're waiting with bated breath, they're very excited and find it difficult to be patient.('Baited breath' is a common mistake.)

Cat and dog life
If people lead a cat and dog life, they are always arguing.
Cat burglar
A cat burglar is a skillful thief who breaks into places without disturbing people or setting off alarm.
Don't cry over spilt milk
When something bad happens and nothing can be done to help it people say, 'Don't cry over spilt milk'.
Don't give up the day job
This idiom is used a way of telling something that they do something badly.
Don't hold your breathIf you are told not to hold your breath, it means that you shouldn't have high expectations about something.

Eat your words
If you eat your words, you accept publicly that you were wrong about something you said.
Economical with the truth
(UK) If someone, especially a politician, is economical with the truth, they leave out information in order to create a false picture of a situation, without actually lying.
Egg on your face
If someone has egg on their face, they are made to look foolish or embarrassed.

Go fry an egg
(USA) This is used to tell someone to go away and leave you alone.
Go hand in hand
If things go hand in hand, they are associated and go together.
Hiding to nothing
If people are on a hiding to nothing, their schemes and plans have no chance of succeeding. 'Hiding to nowhere' is an alternative.
High and dry
If you are left high and dry, you are left alone and given no help at all when you need it.
High and low
If you search high and low, you look everywhere for something or someone.

method of translation

method of translation

In a method of translating a text described by a first language into a text described by a second language, words/idioms appearing in the first language text are managed as data sorted in accordance with a predetermined order, in such a manner that individual identification numbers are provided to the words/idioms in accordance with the predetermined order of sorting while the same identification number is provided to the same word/idiom. Then, the identification numbers as well as character strings of the second language corresponding to the words/idioms of the first language are used to generate the second language text in which the identification numbers for the words/idioms of the first language corresponding to the character strings of the second language are added ahead of the respective character strings of the second language. When it is desired to replace some of the character strings in the second language text in editing the second language text, the incorporation of the identification numbers into the second language text makes it possible to check the matching in the first language text by means of the identification numbers, thereby preventing unnecessary or undesired replacement which may be produced if the edition is made on the basis of only the matching of the character strings in the second language text.

There are eight types of translation:
word-for-word translation,
literal translation,
faithful translation,
semantic translation,
adaptive translation,
free translation,
idiomatic translation,
communicative translation.

Saturday, 22 May 2010


amoment. It can carry 500 passengers to anywhere in the universe at extremely high speed. You are lucky to be chosen as one of the passengers in this advanced spaceship. Each passenger can choose whatever they want to do on this ship while it travels through space. What would you do?

Would you want to be the one who takes care and navigates this highly engineered spaceship? Or are you the type who likes to take care of the health of the passengers and become the Medical person on board.

A novel effort indeed!
May be you want to be the captain of this ship and manage the entire journey taking care of the ship as well as the passengers. Maybe, some of you may want to start a business on board making a fortune at the end of the journey.

Well, do you know what I'll do? I'll talk to the captain of the ship and tell him that I want to do nothing except to just sit by my window looking through my telescopes and binoculars and enjoy all the strange and mysterious things that passes by as we zip through space. How about that? Would you like to join me and appreciate all the new things that come by? I asked the same question to my Quantum Physics class of about 100 students recently and sensed a resounding "yes" from the floor which would otherwise be silent every time I posed a question.

Now let's just imagine the spaceship is slightly bigger. Much bigger. Let's say it can carry many more passengers. Not 500 or 5000 but 5 billion passengers. And I ask you the same question. What would you prefer to do on such a spaceship? Would you still join me by the window and study all the great things that pass by.

A 5 billion passenger spaceship is huge. But then the earth has 5 billion on it and… yes we're actually on a spaceship that we call Earth. This spaceship of ours in this solar system travels through the ever expanding universe which according to the Big Bang moves further and further away from its neighbours - like two points on the surface of an expanding balloon.

Probably the early species of Homo Habilis, Homo Erectus and of course the surviving Homo Sapiens (that's us) after dinner would sit by their "dwellings" and look up in the sky and wonder what is out there and why they are here on this spaceship, Earth.

So what is my point?

We still ask the same questions today.
As passengers on this mighty spaceship, our kids asked a lot of questions at their early age but asked less and less as they grow older. They lack the passion to pursue and understand nature, I mean basic science - mathematics, physics and astronomy, chemistry, biology etc. Of course the other subjects are equally important for the well being of our spaceship.

The present day Homo Sapiens may be involved in so many "complex affairs" and forget to ask basic questions about nature.
Much of our present day technologies are the results of many generations of finding questions as well as providing answers about nature - things that pass by the window of our great spaceship - that was quickly captured by the great minds like Newton and Einstein. As the human race inches through to understand nature, for example nanotechnology, nanobiology, molecular electronics plus atoms, protons, quarks -charm, strange, beauty and down, gluons, mesons, leptons etc etc, more passengers sitting by the window will ensure the continuous charting of the wonderful things that pass by our great spaceship, screaming to be discovered.

So to all you kids and over grown kids out there … let us join the great geniuses and minds of our past, present and future and sit by the window in this mysterious journey in our great spaceship.


Perjalanan Misteri Menembusi Angkasa


Berikut ini adalah bukan pertanyaan hipotetis. Hal ini nyata!

Mari kita bayangkan pesawat luar angkasa besar telah dibina - Saya akan menceritakan kepada kamu di mana pesawat luar angkasa yang sama dapat dijumpai dalam sekejap. pesawat ini dapat membawa 500 penumpang ke mana saja di alam semesta dengan had laju yang sangat tinggi. Anda bertuah jika terpilih sebagai salah satu penumpang dalam pesawat luar angkasa maju. Setiap penumpang boleh melakukan apa pun yang mereka ingin lakukan di kapal ini ketika ia bergerak melalui ruang. Apa yang akan anda lakukan?

Adakah anda ingin menjadi orang yang menjaga dan menavigasi pesawat yang sangat berteknologi? Atau adakah anda jenis orang yang suka menjaga kesihatan para penumpang dan menjadi orang perubatan di atas kapal.

Hasil pendekatan yang baik! Mungkin anda ingin menjadi kapten kapal ini dan menetapkan semua perjalanan memuat kes kapal serta penumpang. Mungkin, beberapa dari anda mungkin ingin memulakan perniagaan di papan membuat kemenangan di akhir perjalanan.

Jadi, anda tahu apa yang akan saya lakukan?

Saya akan berbincang dengan kapten kapal dan katakan bahawa saya ingin melakukan apa saja kecuali temenung tepi jendela melihat melalui teleskop dan teropong dan nikmati semua hal-hal aneh dan misterius yang terapung seperti yang kita masuk ke ruang angkasa lepas. Bagaimana tentang itu? Ingin bergabung dengan saya dan menghargai semua hal baru yang datang? saya bertanya soalan yang sama untuk saya kelas Fizik Quantum daripada 100 pelajar baru-baru ini dan dengan semangatnya "ya" dari pelajar yang setiap kalinya saya mengajukan soalan akan berdiam diri.

Sekarang mari kita bayangkan angkasa adalah sedikit lebih besar. Jauh lebih besar. Katakan kapal angkasa itu boleh membawa penumpang lebih banyak. Bukan 500 atau 5000 tetapi 5 bilion penumpang. Dan saya menanyakan pertanyaan yang sama. Apa yang akan anda lebih suka lakukan di seperti sebuah pesawat ruang angkasa? Adakah anda masih akan bergabung dengan saya di tepi jendela dan kaji semua perkara hebat yang tejadi.

Sebuah pesawat ruang angkasa yang boleh memenuhi penumpang sebanyak 5000000000 adalah sangat besar. Tapi bumi mempunyai 5 bilion dan ya kita benar berada di angkasa yang kita sebut bumi. Ruang angkasa ini adalah kepunyaan kita dalam sistem suria perjalanan melalui alam semesta senantiasa meluas yang menurut Big Bang bergerak semakin jauh dari jirannya - seperti dua titik di permukaan sebuah belon berkembang.

Mungkin spesies awal Homo habilis, Erectus Homo dan tentu saja Homo sapiens hidup (kita) selepas makan malam mereka akan duduk dimana "tempat mereka tinggal" dan mendongak ke langit dan tertanya-tanya kenapa mereka disini, iaitu bumi.

Jadi apa tujuan saya?

saya masih mengajukan soalan yang sama hari ini. Sebagai penumpang pesawat luar angkasa yang besar, anak-anak kita mengajukan banyak soalan pada usia awal mereka tapi kurang bertanya saat mereka membesar lebih dewasa. Mereka kurang ghairah untuk mengejar dan memahami sifat semula jadi, maksud saya ilmu asas - matematik, fizik dan astronomi, kimia, biologi dll. Tentu saja subjek lain yang sama pentingnya bagi kebaikan ruang angkasa ini.

The Homo sapiens sekarang mungkin terlibat dalam begitu banyak "urusan yang kompleks" dan lupa untuk menanyakan soalan asas tentang alam. Sebahagian besar teknologi sekarang kita adalah hasil dari generasi yang mencari soalan mahupun jawapan mempunyai tentang alam - hal-hal yang melepasi sempadan ruang angkasa besar kita - yang pantas difahami oleh minda hebat seperti Newton dan Einstein. Sebagai umat manusia terbatas untuk memahami alam, misalnya nanoteknologi, nanobiology, elektronik ditambah atom molekul, proton, quark-pesona, aneh, keindahan dan ke bawah, gluon, meson, lepton dll. Akan lebih ramai lagi penumpang duduk ditepi tingkap dan memastikan keindahan carta yang memenuhi ruang angkasa ditemui.

Jadi untuk semua anak-anak anda dan yang akan membesar di luar sana, mari kita bersama pakar bijak pandai dan fikirkan tentang masa lalu, sekarang dan juga masa depan dan berdirilah disempadan dalam menerokai perjalanan misteri ke ruang angkasa.

Saturday, 15 May 2010

classes of english


An acrolect is a register of a spoken language that is considered formal and high style.



A mesolect is term referring to a register or range of registers of spoken language whose character falls somewhere between the prestige of the acrolect and the informality of the basilect.


In linguistics, a basilect is a dialect of speech that has diverged considerably from an acrolect or standard educated variety of language. A basilect and acrolect in which it originated may eventually reach mutual unintelligibility.

Friday, 14 May 2010

strong and weak verb


Strong verbs are the very common verbs like be, go, run and take, to name a few, that do not form the past tense by adding -ed to the stem. Instead, strong verbs change at least the vowel and sometimes the entire stem: was/were for be; went for go; ran for run; took for take; begin for start; build for make.

The key feature of a strong verb is (usually) that the simple past tense and the past participle do not end in -ed (or -t used in place of -ed). Often the stem vowel changes, too.

Examples of strong verbs
sing - sang - sung
break - broke - broken
run - ran - run
hit - hit - hit
bite - bit - bitten
grow - grew - grown
come - came - come
write - wrote - written



Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle, and have no change of vowel, are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs.

But the rest, which may be called irregular weak verbs, need some attention and explanation.

The two classes of irregular weak verbs.

(1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense, with some change of form for the past tense and past participle.

(2) Those which end in -d or -t, and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this.

The old ending to verbs of Class II. was -de or -te; as,—

Irregular Weak Verbs.—Class I

present tense


past tense


past participle


Irregular Weak Verbs.—Class II.

present tense


past tense


past participle


Homonym & Hyponym


In linguistics, a homonym is, in the strict sense, one of a group of words that share the same spelling and the same pronunciation but have different meanings (in other words, are both homographs and homophones), usually as a result of the two words having different origins. The state of being a homonym is called homonymy. Examples of pairs of homonyms are stalk (part of a plant) and stalk (follow/harass a person), and left (opposite of right) and left (past tense of leave).

In a looser non-technical sense, the term "homonym" can be used to refer to words that share the same spelling irrespective of pronunciation, or share the same pronunciation irrespective of spelling – in other words, they are homographs or homophones.[1] In this sense, pairs such as row (propel with oars) and row (argument), and read (peruse) and reed (waterside plant), would also be homonyms.

A distinction may be made between "true" homonyms, which are unrelated in origin, such as skate (glide on ice) and skate (the fish), and polysemous homonyms, or polysemes, which have a shared origin, such as mouth (of a river) and mouth (of an animal).


In linguistics, a hyponym is a word or phrase whose semantic fieldis included within that of another word, its hypernym (sometimes spelled hyperonym outside of the natural language processing community). In simpler terms, a hyponym shares a type-of relationship with its hypernym. For example, scarlet, vermilion, carmine, and crimson are all hyponyms of red (their hypernym), which is, in turn, a hyponym of colour.

Computer science often terms this relationship an "is-a" relationship. For example, the phrase Red is a colour can be used to describe the hyponymic relationship between red and colour.

Hypernymy is the semantic relation in which one word is the hypernym of another. Hypernymy, the relation in which words stand when their extensions stand in the relation of class to subclass, should not be confused with holonymy, which is the relation in which words stand when the things that they denote stand in the relation of whole to part. A similar warning applies to hyponymy and meronymy.

Translate The Text (SL) Into Bahasa Melayu (TL)

I Learned From The Best lyrics

Did you really think that
I would really take you back
Let you back in my heart
One more time? Oh, no no

Did you think I'd still care
That there'd be more feeling there?
Did you think you could walk back
In my life? Oh

So you found you missed the love you threw away
Baby, but you found it out too late, too late

And so you know the way it feels to cry
The way that I cried when you broke my world in two
And baby I learned the way to break a heart
I learned from the best, I learned from you
Oh baby, now, I learned from you

I remember cold nights
Tears I thought would never dry
How you shattered my world
With your goodbye, your goodbye, baby

Would've sold my soul then
Just to have you back again
Now you are the last thing
On my mind

Now you say you're sorry and you've changed your ways
Sorry but you changed your ways too late

So when all you've got are sleepless night
When those tears are clouding up your eyes
Just remember it was you
Who said goodbye, who said goodbye

I learned from the best, I learned from you

Kau betul-betul fikir

Aku akan terima kau kembali

Kembali dihatiku

Sekali lagi, oh tidak,tidak

Kau fikir aku masih peduli

Masih ada lagi perasaan

Kau fikir kau akan kembali

Dalam hidupku, oh

Kau sedari kau merindui cinta yang kau buang

Sayang, kau sedari ianya terlalu lambat,

terlalu lambat.

Kini baru kau tahu rasanya derita

Derita yang aku rasa masa kau tinggalkanku

Dan kini sayang aku belajar bagaimana untuk mengecewakan

aku belajar dari yang terbaik, aku belajar dari kau

dari kau,

oh sayang, sekarang aku belajar dari kau.

aku teringat kembali malam dingin

air mata yang tidak pernah kering

bagaimana kau hancurkan duniaku

dengan pemergianmu

perlukah aku menjualkan jiwa ku

untuk mendapatkan kau kembali

sekarang kau adalah yang terakhir di dalam hidupku

kini kau menyesali dan telah berubah

tapi, maaf kau telah terlambat

jadi bila tidurmu tidak lena

bila tangisan mengaburi mata

ingatlah ianya kau

yang mengecewakan.

aku belajar dari yang terbaik

aku belajar dari kau